For various protective reaction of the organism responsible one or another type of white blood cells. P.Erlih first divided the white blood cells into types: granulosa cells (granulocytes), containing in its plasma granules and granular (agranulocytes). Currently, the first divided into: neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils. All of them are formed in the bone marrow and defend the body against bacteria and toxins. The second group consists of leukocytes produced in the spleen, lymph nodes: B lymphocytes (B and T lymphocytes) and monocytes.
Neutrophils protect the body against bacteria, fagotsitiruya them. In addition, they produce the antimicrobial substance. Increasing the number of neutrophils, indicating the presence of various kinds of infections, such as sore throat, pyelonephritis, meningitis and the like, and may be in such strong hemorrhage, leukemia, lead poisoning.
Eosinophils in the body and control the amount of histamine reduce its excess for allergic diseases. These blood cells increases in allergic dermatitis, asthma, infection with parasites (Ascaris, Giardia et al.), In tumors, some leukemias.
Basophils also participate in allergic reactions immediate action: block toxins enter the body. In addition, the fact they regulate blood clotting.
Lymphocytes play an important role in establishing immunity. T cells have memory, are able to recognize antigens and produce antibodies. They collect the cells to fight the foreign molecules and microbes that have penetrated into the body. B lymphocytes - produce antibodies. In some infections (tuberculosis, cytomegalovirus infection, syphilis, etc.) and leukemia increases the number of lymphocytes. A decline in their numbers (lymphopenia) observed in severe viral diseases, cancers, immunodeficiencies.
Monocytes are called immature cells that begin to function, just turned into macrophages (phagocytes). They absorb and lyse dead cells, bacteria, etc. Also phagocytes participate in immune reactions with leukocytes. The number of monocytes increases in some infectious diseases, such as malaria, infectious mononucleosis, syphilis and others.
Since the number of white cells in the blood is an indicator of the state of the body, the doctors of all specialties interested in the percentage of different types of white blood cells (WBC). That formula indicates the presence of a disease. But as the number of white blood cells depends on various conditions including the meal, it is recommended to take fasting blood.