- Increased thirst (patients can not quench their thirst by drinking per day, even 10 liters);
- Frequent urination especially at night;
- The skin is usually rough, easy to peel off, dry, covered scratching. Often manifested eczema, abrasions, and other skin diseases;
- Tongue and mucous membranes of the mouth, dry, covered with a touch of yellow-brown color;
- Leg cramps, tingling and numbness in the extremities;
- Slow healing of wounds;
- Violation of visual acuity;
- Rapid weight loss with a normal diet.
Often, patients with diabetes sclerotic vascular lesions legs, especially the capillaries, causing gangrenous tissue changes. To confirm the diagnosis is necessary to determine the glucose content in the blood serum, as well as glucose in urine.
In healthy adults the amount of glucose in human blood serum in normal ranges 3, 9-5, 8 mmol / l during pregnancy and in people over 60 years reaches the upper - 6, 4 mmol / liter. In the arterial blood glucose higher than in venous blood. The urine of a healthy person is no sugar.
Increasing the amount of sugar in the blood serum of more than 6, 6 mmol / liter of said developing diabetes. The urine sugar begins to be detected at a concentration in the blood 9, 9 mmol / liter, it is called the renal threshold. As indicators of different authors and medical institutions are treated differently, then to establish a clearer picture of glucose tolerance test is performed.
The essence of the method is as follows: fasting glucose level is measured in serum, the patient then drinks 75g glucose dissolved in a glass of warm water, and once again determine the amount of sugar in the blood after a half hour, an hour and two hours. Presence of diabetes is diagnosed when the amount of glucose in blood and a 11 mmol / liter.